Electromagnetic radiation is defined according to its wavelength and frequency, which is the number of cycles of a wave that pass a reference point per second.
Electromagnetic frequencies are described in units called hertz (Hz).
Three large epidemiologic studies have examined the possible association between cell phone use and cancer: Interphone, a case-control study; the Danish Study, a cohort study; and the Million Women Study, another cohort study.
Investigators have also conducted analyses of incidence trends to determine whether the incidence of brain or other cancers has changed during the time that cell phone use increased dramatically.
In another type of study, called a cohort study, a large group of people who do not have cancer at study entry is followed over time and the rate of these tumors in people who did and didn’t use cell phones is compared.
Cancer incidence data can also be analyzed over time to see if the rates of cancer changed in large populations during the time that cell phone use increased dramatically.
Peer review is a critical component of the scientific process to ensure that research findings are meaningful, accurate, and appropriately interpreted. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement on the NTP reports stating they “believe the current safety limits for cell phones are acceptable for protecting the public health.” FDA and the Federal Communications Commission share responsibility for regulating cell phone technologies and FDA originally nominated this topic for study by NTP.Direct measurements are not yet possible outside of a laboratory setting.Estimates take into account the following: Radiofrequency energy, unlike ionizing radiation, does not cause DNA damage that can lead to cancer.Its only consistently observed biological effect in humans is tissue heating.In animal studies, it has not been found to cause cancer or to enhance the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinogens (6–8).Some contributing factors include assumptions used to estimate doses, failure to consider temperature effects, and lack of blinding of investigators to exposure status.